Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus which causes AIDS in human beings and it has hit many families, communities & nations across the world. HIV infection leads to decreasing in immune system as well as CD4+ count in the human body. AIDS is life-threatening disease and has already caused the death of over 30 million people around the world through viral transmission via blood and through sexual interactions. Several studies have identified a strong correlation between HIV infection and various oral lesions, a specific form of periodontal diseases. Studies on this disease suggest that co-infections and inflammation results in re-activation of latent virus and decreasing the progression of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. When HIV infected patients were infected with chronic multibacterial infectious diseases like periodontal diseases then there may be a significant increase in viral and bacterial load in gingivitis that leads to increase in the risk of HIV reactivation. Pathogens involved in periodontitis may cause reactivation of HIV and the role Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome [IRIS] under HAART. Interferon-γ [IFN-γ], interleukin-6 [IL-6] and TNF-α upregulate IFN regulatory factor-1 [IRF-1] which leads to cell activation and drives HIV-1 replication. Interleukin-1 [IL-1] and tumour necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] activate nuclear factor kappa B [NFκB], which is the principal transcription factor to induce viral gene expression through interaction with the long terminal repeat [LTR] of the HIV provirus.

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