Thyroid gland swelling leads to Goiter also called a bronchocele. Thyroid gland tissue comprises follicular cells; these cells secrete iodine-containing hormones 3, 5, 3’, 5’ Tetraiodothyronine (T4) and Tri –iodothyronine (T3). Also this tissue contains Para follicular cells (also called C cells) which secrete calcitonin hormone.The major thyroid hormone synthesized by the thyroid gland is thyroxine (T4). Small amounts of tri-iodothyronine (T3) and reverse T3 (rT3) are also synthesized in the thyroid gland. T4 is converting to T3 by  removing iodine atom. This conversion occurs mainly in the liver and in certain tissues such as brain where T3 acts.

The production of thyroid hormones is tightly regulated via the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis.In adolescents particularly women age ranges 11 – 18 years having commonly thyroid gland disorders. Different iodine intakes in different geographical locations causes thyroid gland disorders.

The population is at risk of iodine deficiency disorders (UNICEF. 2001, WHO 2004). A national survey of iodine status in Pakistan conducted during 1993-1994 reported a median urinary iodine concentration (UI) of 16 μg/L and 90.4% of the population had a UI <100 μg/L. The total goiter prevalence was estimated to be 85% in Azad Jammu & Kashmir. The National Plan for action with technical and financial assistance from the Micronutrient Initiative (MI). One of its high prime priorities was to increase access to and use of adequately iodized salt in Pakistan (WHO report 2004). In 2008, the Nutritional Wing of the Ministry of Health in Pakistan launched a project in 65 districts of Pakistan to enhance production of iodized salt in the country. As a result, iodized salt production increased from 17% to 70% in these districts.

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