A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection mainly caused by  E.coli which affects  the urinary tract. Infection which is in the lower urinary tract is called as a simple cystitis (a bladder infection) and infection in the upper urinary tract is called as pyelonephritis (a kidney infection).Painful urination and frequent urination are the main symptoms for lower urinary tract infection. But for those having pyelonephritis, includes fever and flank pain along with the symptoms of lower UTI. Symptoms will be non-specific or vague for very young or elderly people.
Antibiotics are the main treatment for this problem. During the first few days, Phenazopyridine is prescribed  in addition to antibiotics for  burning and urgency. But in recent years, surveys have reported that antibiotic resistance is increasing for the causative bacterium which makes the treatment hard. A gene, known as aacC2, is responsible for the resistance to an antibiotic  gentamicin  which is commonly used for the treatment. These genes are spreading via food chain and treatment will be more difficult.
This problem leads the  scientists to attempt a new approach, to develop substances that aim bacteria virulence factors. These factors inhibits the bacteria to stick inside the urinary bladder. These are known as FimH antagonists, non antibiotic compounds which would not promote the growth of antibiotic resistance bacteria. Consequently, microbes are not able to commence an infection and this new class of antimicrobials is anticipated to demonstrate less selection pressure and therefore, a less potential for the appearance of resistance.

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