Several studies have suggested that there is a high deficiency of vitamin D in the HIV infected patient’s having the high risk factors of osteopenia and osteoporosis.  Vitamin D also plays an important role in immunological responses to the pathogens, metabolic syndrome and other clinical problems. Many of the observational studies have been stated that there is more prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in HIV followed by the antiretroviral therapy with increased rate of lipoatrophy and metabolic abnormalities. Low (25-OH) vitamin D levels have been associated with the low CD4 (+) counts, immunological hyperactivity. The effect of antiretroviral agents may also lead to the decrease 25-OH vitamin D levels.

Vitamin D has the ability to up-regulate immunological responses by the activation of human macrophages, monocyte chemotaxis and other mechanisms which explains the relation between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to upper respiratory infections. Most of the HIV patients will respond poorly to H1N1 vaccine and other influenza vaccines when compared with non infected patients. Researchers took the samples of patients in order to know the reason behind the susceptibility towards H1N1 vaccine using the vitamin D levels in the individuals but the explanation was unclear and they have tried to resolve the problem using different doses of vaccines. Unexpectedly they found that there is no relation between the vitamin D level and prior exposure to H1N1 and vaccine response.

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