Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an acid fast bacterium which is soil borne and it is highly pathogenic to the humans and cattle as well. Tuberculosis is the caused to 1/3rd of the world population annually. It is highly epidemic and highly contagious. Main symptoms are dry cough, unnoticed lesions, fever, night sweat and blood cough is the symptom in chronic stages. The organism infecting in cattle is Mycobacterium bovis. It is diagnosed by Mantoux test, CT scan for the lung and cultural characters of the sputum. Incubation period in humans is about four to twelve weeks. Humans are the primary reservoirs for the pathogen.

HIV patients are more prone to tuberculosis as it affects the immune system badly. The molecular mechanism is based on the immune system when it gets weak by the lack of B cells & T cells in the immune system. When this bacterium infects the lungs, it enters into the empty places of the alveolar tissues and causes pores and thereby leading to lesions. In HIV patients the HIV virus primarily infects the cd4 and cd8 receptors and weakens the immune system and when tuberculosis infects, the immune system cannot resist to the infection and thus the infection is formed.

Generally tuberculosis severity is reduced from past decades due to the maintenance of proper hygienic conditions among the developed countries.

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