Now days Gene therapy is becoming most important therapeutic modality having tremendous advantages. They are useful for the treatment of genetic and acquired disorder. There are different methods of gene deliverywhich were developed for various types of cells and tissues, from bacterial to mammalian. But in general these two methods are important i.e. Viral and Non viral.
Viral transduction and electroporation are two main alternative methods to lipid based methods.
Viral transduction has certain limitations like need of specialist expertise, time consuming process and also the safety issues in clinical application.Recombinant viruses such as retrovirus, lentivirus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, and herpes simplex virus are used mainly in viral transduction for gene transfer. These have the drawbacks like difficulty in production, limited opportunity for repeated administrations and delayed humoral or cellular immune responses.
Non viral gene delivery methods use synthetic or natural compounds which are less toxic and immunogenic to introduce the DNA in to a cell. These are also very easy to prepare and can be used repeatedly. Studies have showed that gene delivery by some physical methods have the same efficiency to that of viral methods and are clinically safe.
Conclusion is that transfection efficiency of nonviral methods is still below the viral methods of gene delivery. To increase the efficiency and to reduce the toxicity of nonviral vectors many improvements are required so as to have their clinical applications.Tags: Gene Therapy, Lentivirus, Toxicity