Physiological biometrics is a class of biometrics that deals with physical characteristics and attributes that are unique to individuals. A very recent advance in contactless biometric sensor technology is finger-vein recognition, which is accurate, hard to forge, and helps solve many privacy concerns. Finger vein recognition is a method of biometric authentication that uses pattern-recognition techniques based on images of human finger vein patterns beneath the skin. Near-infrared light is directed onto the finger and is absorbed by the haemoglobin of the blood in the veins. Using the infrared light, an image is generated of the unique pattern of veins, which is then captured by a sensor placed a few centimetres under the finger.
Blood vessel patterns are unique to each individual, as other biometric data such as fingerprints or the patterns of the iris. Finger Vein ID is a biometric authentication system that matches the vascular pattern in an individual’s finger to previously obtained record.Hitachi patented a finger vein ID system in 2005. The technology is currently in use for a wide variety of applications, including credit card authentication, automobile security, employee time and attendance tracking, computer and network authentication, end point security and automated teller machines.
Finger-vein technology is extremely difficult to duplicate because vein patterns used for authentication are hidden to the eyes, the technology is very secure from spoofing. Since vein patterns are not visible to the eye and does not leave traces behind, the technology is highly resilient to spoofing. Vein recognition technology has a False Rejection Rate of 0.01% and a False Acceptance Rate of 0.0001%. So it is arguably the most suitable for high-security deployment. Vein recognition biometric technology is most commonly found in the Asia Pacific region. Due to some controversies surrounding fingerprint biometrics, vein recognition has found widespread acceptance in the Asian Pacific.