DNA chips are the tiny microarrays contain large number of genes immobilized and fixed with solid supports such as polyacrylamide on a glass microscopic slides or silicon or nylon membranes. Why DNA Chip Has Designed?

DNA chips contain number of genes with acknowledged sequences and act as probes to detect new related genes, detection of relative genes involved in disease development, identification of gene expression, drug discovery, etc.

How DNA chip can work?

DNA chip is working with a principle known as hybridization. As per the molecular biology principles, DNA and RNA can be formed with four nucleotides called as Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine and Uracil (Uracil present in RNA instead of Thymine) and genes are the complementary base pairs can able to attach with each other with hydrogen bonds. A bind with T (with U in RNA) and G with C. This complementary base pairing with hydrogen bonds is termed as hybridization.

DNA chip contains number of oligonucleotide bases with known sequences act as probes to detect complementary base pairs from labelled test solution. These complementary base pairs form hybrids and stable after washing also. Theses hybrids can be detect with specific techniques and separate.

So DNA chip technology operating with hybridization principle and can helps to detect genetic mutations and related diseases, gene expression, relative gene identification, drug discovery and designing, etc…

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