Mitochondria and its Role in Cancer
Mitochondrial genome is susceptible to reactive oxygen species induced damage. Alternations in the mitochondria genome and biochemical nature become contributing a variety of human dieses including cancer and most of the alternations are specifically associated with the metabolic function. The differences in altered enzyme activities, functions of proteins in the mitochondria, altered membrane potential and expression of mitochondrial proteins. Molecular composition of the inner membrane of the mitochondrial and cancer cell also reported as cancer progression. Recent studies revels that mtDNA mutations and depletions are useful markers for tumour progression.
Based on the differences in mitochondria structure and function between normal cells and cancer cells mitochondria are also used as a target for chemotherapy. mtDNA copy number is also reported in a variety of cancers like papillary carcinomas reported with the increased number of mtDNA copies, polymorphisms in mtDNA are also responsible for the carcinogenesis and tumour progression. In mitochondria metabolism, the stabilization of HIF-1α is also responsible for the cancer progression. HIF- α is transcription factor that is degraded in the presence of oxygen. Many alternations and metabolic disorders in mitochondria makes causative agent for cancer.
Cancer can be diagnosed by the Radiology tests, Biopsy procedures, Interventional Radiology procedures, Blood Test & Tumour Diagnostics tests.
There are number of treatments for the prevention of cancer based on the area where it is.
Biologic Therapy: Biologic Therapy work by promoting immune system like Gene Therapy, Vaccine Therapy.
Bone Marrow Transplants: Bone Marrow Transplants include cord blood transplants.